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Definition of Abakuá

It is the name belonging to a kind of male secret society in Cuba. Being of reserved origin, there is not much knowledge about the responsibilities and characteristics of being part of an abakuá. These members can also be called Ñáñigo.

Nowadays they are known for being a marginalized and macho society, as well as potential criminals, and other characteristics that are not very pleasant for social peace.

They have basic indispensable requirements, such as being of male gender, not being homosexual or supporting the LGBTIQ+ community. In the same way, they must pass different initiation tests supervised by experts of the society.


  1. Ñañiguismo


It has as its main influence religions housed in the existing societies in Nigeria, specifically in Calabar. In Africa there are a diverse number of legends where each one of the different societies adopts the one that took place or is more popular in its geographic region. For the Abakuá, the legend taken as a base is the one that tells how the princess Sikán finds the sacred fish Tanze and this exerts its howl on the drum Ekué.

This society became known for the first time in 1820 in Cuba, due to the arrival of Calabar tribes to the island. At the beginning of this society it was known mostly by slaves. That is to say, they did not accept whites or mulattos.

At the beginning of this century, a new Abakuá society was created, but this time of whites. Of course, under the same principles and traditions as the old ones. This society provided facilities for the creation of others throughout the country, manifesting itself in at least 5 municipalities, having in each one of them a list of relevant members.


The Abakuá was formed to fight slavery, where the members of the societies bought slaves and then freed them.

It can be considered as a religion for having books of commandments and sacred terminologies of Abakuá.